HQ Li-ion and Solid State Lithium Metal Batteries: from atoms to system

Dr Karim Zaghib General Director of the Center of Excellence in Transportation Electrification and Energy Storage, Canada

Dr. Karim Zaghib, General Director at CETEES, CEG at SCE France, CTG at InnovHQ and HQES.

LiFePO4 has emerged as the winning cathode material for a new generation of Li-ion batteries that are increasingly used for hybrid and electric vehicles, due to its remarkable electrochemical properties. The present review gives the state of the art in the understanding of the properties of this material and the other members of the same family. We discuss the effects of the decrease of the size of the particles down to circa 20 nm; some of them have been misunderstood or are still open questions. All of them are important to determine the trends in the research and development on this family of materials in the future. The cells’ properties are also reviewed with both the graphite
and more recently the Li4Ti5O12 anodes, the last one providing outstanding performance in terms of cycling life and power that make them promising not only for electric vehicles, but also to solve for intermittence locally in smart grids.
HQ-CNRS started work on lithium metal with polymer electrolyte in lithium rechargeable batteries in 1979. Since that time, battery research has expanded worldwide. Several new polymers, solid electrolytes and ionic liquids with improved conductivity have resulted from a better understanding of the major parameters controlling ion migration, such as favorable polymer structure, phase diagram between solvating polymer and lithium salt, and the development of new lithium counter-anions.
In spite of the progress so far, the quest for a highly conductive dry polymer at room temperature is still continuing and all-lithium polymer battery (LPB) developers presently face the challenge of whether to heat the PEO-based polymer electrolyte to enable high-power performance, as required for electric vehicle and energy storage or develop a polymer electrolytes conductive at RT. LPB developers have explored both the high-temperature and low-temperature options.
This presentation provides an overview and progress in developing three battery technologies:
1. Lithium-metal-based batteries made from dry polymer and ionic liquid-polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries with olivine (LFP and LMFP).
2. All solid-state batteries using Li°-NMC
3. High voltage composite polymer- ceramic for all solid state batteries.
We compare the performances the energy density, the cost, and safety of li-ion batteries vs. solid state batteries. In this presentation we will explain the process from materials to the system (cell, module and pack).
A. Mauger1, C.M. Julien1, M. Armand2, J.B. Goodenough3 and K. Zaghib4*
1 Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), CNRS UMR 7590, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
2 CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico de Alava, Albert Einstein 48, Ed. CIC, 01510, Miñano, Spain
3 Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2201, Austin, TX 78712, USA
4 Centre of Excellence in Transportation Electrification and Energy Storage Hydro-Québec, 1806, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes Quebec, Canada J3X 1S1


Karim Zaghib innovates within Hydro- Québec, the company in charge of the production, transmission and distribution of electricity in the province of Quebec, CA. He currently holds the positions of General Director at the Center of excellence in transportation electrification and energy storage of Hydro-Quebec [CETEES], CEO of SCE France and CTO of lnnovHQ and HQ Energy Storage [HQES].
As a Chemist and a Research Director, his work contributes to the development of lithium-ion battery materials, making Hydro-Québec the first company worldwide to use lithium iron phosphate in a cathode and to develop natural graphite anodes and nanotitanates.
His most recent innovations, based on collaboration with universities, research centers and companies is paving the way towards the next generation of batteries for electric vehicles and job creation in the industry.
His work earned him rewards from the Electric Research Exchange (2008), the lnternational Battery Association (2010 and 2017) and ECS. ECS has rewarded Karim Zaghib with the Energy Technology Division Award (2009), the Battery Division Technology Award (2013) and the ECS Fellow title (2011).
M. Zaghib is a co-inventor in over 550 patents. He is also the author of 393 scientific publications and editor/co- editor of nearly 20 books, including Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology {2016}, High Performance of Li-Ion and Li-Polymer Batteries {2004} and Lithium and Li-ion Batteries {2003}.
M. Zaghib holds a master (1987) and a doctorate (1990) in Electrochemistry from the Institut national polytechnique de Grenoble, in France. From 1990 to 1992, he pursued post-doctoral research funded by Saft, a worldwide leader in High Tech batteries, and the Directorate General of Armaments of Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and lndustry. ln 2002, M. Zaghib received the authorization to direct research in material sciences [HDR] from Pierre-et- Marie-Curie University in France.